Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Spiritual Formation is...(James Wilhoit)

Christian spiritual formation is growing in Christ through community (James Wilhoit)

Christian spiritual formation is living in a Christian faith community that receives, remembers, responds and relates. This community forms the crucible where the formative elements, the lived elements, and the ethical elements of the faith are being worked out in the daily interactions between Christian disciples, their culture and the people they interact with.

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Death in Paradise

Death in Paradise

Is there death in the Garden of Eden? We always assume to death entered the world because of the Original Sin (The Original Sin happened when Eve and Adam disobeyed God thus breaking their communion Gen.3). If death only enter the world through the Original Sin, how will the ecosystem of the Garden of Eden be sustained before Eve and Adam sinned? If there is no death, then are the animals in the Garden of Eden vegetarians?
Death is an important part of our present day ecosystem. Dead plants and animals are broken down into the essential minerals and organic components which form the substrate on which new plants and animals develop. It will be impossible for an ecosystem to sustain itself without death and decay.
Death that is part of the curse is directed to Adam and Eve rather than the animals (Gen. 3:19; 1 Cor. 15). It is likely to be spiritual death rather than physical death. Spiritual death is separation from God and this death in the curse is mentioned as the direct result of the Original Sin. It is unlikely that Adam and Eve are immortal because if they are, then there is no reason for the Tree of Life to be a temptation. The Tree of Life is already in the Garden well before the Fall (Gen.2:9). Therefore it is likely that Adam and Eve have limited but long lifespan (Isa. 65:20-24). Even after the curse, Adam lived for 930 years (Gen.5:5).
Are there carnivorous animals in the Garden of Eden? The fangs and muscles of lions and wolves suggest that there were. Before the Fall, Adam’s job was to look after the Garden (Gen.1:28). We assume that his job was gardening but what if it is to control the animals too; something like that of a park ranger? If there were no death, overpopulation will be a major problem for human, animals and plants. There is also a hint that the Garden is a walled area with angels guarding the gateways.
In the new creation, the wolf lying down beside the lamb (and not eating it) and the lions have become reformed vegetarians may suggest that the new creation is truly better than the Garden of Eden (Isa. 65:25).

Interesting, both Thomas Aquinas and John Calvin thinks that animals die in the Garden of Eden.


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Spiritual Formation is...(Dallas Willard)

Christian spiritual formation is renovation of the heart (Dallas Willard)


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Sunday, January 18, 2015

Prosperity Bible


Saturday, January 17, 2015

Book Review: Face to Face


Face to Face: Meeting God in the Quite Places 
Monte Kline (2010) [Kindle edition]

 Kline's main thesis is the importance of meeting God "face to face" through Personal Retreat [capitalise 'P' for personal, author's]. The concept of personal retreats as a part of spiritual growth is well known. Kline expends on this concept of Personal Retreat by giving his definition, motivation, biblical examples, types of prayer, fasting, and specific ways to do it.

 This is a good book for those who wants to take 'time out' for a personal retreat but do not know how. What is powerful about this book is in Chapter 10 where Kline shared one of his own Personal Retreat at Steens Mountain in south-eastern Oregon in 2003. It was a humbling personal sharing about the circumstances that led him there and extracts from his personal journal on his meeting "face to face" experiences with God. Reading that allows the reader an insight on how powerful a Personal Retreat can be.

 Disclosure: I received a request to review this book by email and the kindle version.


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Friday, January 16, 2015

New and Old Websites

I started the Kairos Spiritual Formation website in 2006, starting from a scratch using Microsoft FrontPage and a couple of website building guide books. It was an exciting challenge for me to learn programming language and website design. That is almost 10 years ago.

I have been continuing updating the website on a weekly basis, adding all my writings, reflections and other stuff. In these years, website designs and language has changed tremendously. Microsoft Frontpage has been discontinued by Microsoft when better and more user friendly website builders became available. Many nowadays do not require the knowledge of any language.

I find my Kairos Spiritual Formation website very useful. Though it has an aged look to it, it still serves me well as a resource and hopefully to others out there. The original purpose of this website is to serve as a free resource on spiritual formation, spiritual direction, engaging culture, spiritual nurture and other areas I am interested and is researching in.

I have considered updating it but the website has ballooned to about 9,800 files! I once consulted a website designer to upgrade the website but the poor guy turned pale and ran out of the room. I guess it will not be easy to upgrade such a large website. Since it is difficult to upgrade, I have decided to maintain it as long as possible. Microsoft has since stopped servicing and updating its Frontpage.

I am still keen to have a fresh look. I cannot do anything more to my present Kairos Spiritual Formation landing page (front page). I have twitched the software so much that I fear it will just die on me. So I decided to start another website which will link to my Kairos Spiritual Formation website. This new website will have all the frills and bells of  new website designs. It also gives me the opportunity to update my skills on website designs. So here it is, Alex Tang, Seeing God in all things

I know the title is a bit Kuyperian and Ignatian. Will I be transferring all my files to this new website? I am not too sure I want to do that for two reasons. One is that it will involve a lot of work and time to manually transfer the files. I know there are programs to do that but so far these program do a reasonable transfer but often mess up the files. The second reason is that I am afraid that by the time I have finished updating the new website, a new generation of website will have arrived with more bells and frills. I know how that feels. I still have old cartridge tapes, LD, VCD, DVD, HDVDV and now Bluray of the same movies!

Do come and visit my new website at while my old website is still open for business. Shalom and welcome.


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Sunday, January 11, 2015

The Making of a Cylon Raider In Discernment

I find that making model spaceship helps in me in my discernment process. Recently I have to make a major decision in my career and ministry. As an aid to my discernment process, I started assembling this plastic spaceship model by Moebius.

I find that model making helps me in my discernment process for two reasons. Firstly, the slow and tedious painting and assembling slow me down and allow me to catch up with myself. It also slows me down so that I can listen to God, Secondly, the focus and working with my hands helps to free up my conscious thoughts and allows me to listen to my subconscious and my heart. It also allow room for prayers.

first layer

second layer

third layer-filling in the lines

fourth layer


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Saturday, January 10, 2015

Definition of Life

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Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Lessons from the Past: 2009

This is the year my eldest daughter got married and my youngest daughter graduated as a medical doctor. I also published another book. Actually Spiritual Formation on the Run came out in December last year but its publication date is January 2009 so I guess that counts. There are many highs and lows in the year but I wish to testify here to the goodness of Our Lord to my family and me. Here are some of the lessons and reflections of the year.

· I still hold to the idea of not making new year resolutions is a good one so that I will not be disappointed as I reflect on what has happened during the year.
· The more I serve in ministry in the forefront (preaching, teaching, eldership, writing, counselling etc) the more I want to retreat to the background. Each year the desire grows stronger to retreat and spent more time in contemplative prayer with God yet the Lord pushes me out with more challenges.
· I love teaching medical students as their youthful and sharp minds stimulate and challenge me. Yet I know I need to focus to do the work the Lord calls me to do which means I have to give up some of the things I have been doing even though it has been fruitful and beneficial to others.
· Offering spiritual leadership is difficult. My call to spiritual leadership is to introduce people to God and to deepen their spiritual life. Unfortunately many interpret spiritual leadership as having more programs, money, power, attendance and buildings.
· There is a very real danger to me that I talk and teach more about God than I actually talk and walk with God. I really need to spend more time in prayer and listening to God in the Bible.
· Every time I think I have made some spiritual progress in the growth of my soul, I backslide to square one. My inner struggles are mainly with pride, anger and patience. Kylie ereison.
· Walking my daughter down the aisle is a deep joyful stroll that concludes with a deep sorrow as I gave her away in marriage. The feeling is bitter-sweet as I release her to the next phase of her life and to accept the transition to the next phase of our relationship. I was in denial about the wedding for a long time. I am slowly learning how to relate with my adult children.
· Getting to know my son-in-law is interesting after I got over the shock of having a strange man wandering around in my house.
· It still trouble me what I think others think of me, but I am learning not to let it bother me.
· Being misunderstood is something that comes with the territory of a teacher/leader. People will only hear and read what they want to hear and read so I need to learn not to be too upset at being misunderstood. I need to remind myself to check whether I am pleasing the Lord or people. The temptation to please people is strong and so is the temptation to be popular.
· The pride I felt watching my second daughter ascend the stage to receive her bachelor degrees is humbled by the honour she showed us on stage by bowing in our direction (after the traditional first bow to the chancellor and the second bow to the dean of the medical school). This third bow is my daughters’ idea and I really appreciate the gesture.
· As my second daughter pick up the baton of practicing medicine, I wonder whether it is time that I lay down my own medical baton. Practicing medicine is fruitful and rewarding but is demanding and exhausting. I wonder if I have the energy to continue the practice.
· I find too much learning distances me from people. I prefer thinking about some obscure theological paradigm than interacting with people. And I prefer spending time in reading, writing and research than in building relationships with others.
· I look older than I am, and feel much older than I should. Yet there is this little mischievous little boy always lurking in the shadows
· I am deeply bothered by the state of my community, society, and country. I often feel despair but have never thought of leaving. In my despair I find hope in the Lord. Maranatha.
· I still have bouts of depression and suffer from dark nights of the senses and of the soul. I have learned in these times to sit, wait, and to embrace the darkness. The darkness of God brings light to the soul in due time.
· I discover that I am a systems thinker; seeing the big picture and able to find links between incongruent connections. However I am still hopeless with mental arithmetic and cannot calculate the correct change
· I need more bookshelves. Books, movies, computer games, and comics are still my love and joy.
· I enjoy travelling (this year we travelled to San Francisco, Shanghai, New Zealand, Australia) but I enjoy being at home more.
· My family time with my wife, daughters, son-in-law, god-children and grand god-children are the most precious time of all.

Macrina Wierderkehr in her poem O Pilgrim of the Hours express beautifully my reflection lessons for this year.

Each morning
night’s curtain
opens on a new day.
You are invited
to join the great opening.
Open your ears.
Open your heart.

Open your eyes
to the sacred path
you travel every day,
the path of the hours.

Greet the hours
with joyful awareness.
Greet the hours
with faithful presence.
Greet the hours
with a reverential bow.
Greet the hours
with a sacred pause.

Reverence each hour
as a small steeping stone
on your pilgrimage
through the day.
Receive the gift
of seven sacred pauses.
practice waking up seven times a day.

(Macrina Wiederkehr (2008), Seven Sacred Pauses, Notre Dame: Sorin Books, 16-17).
Soli Deo Gloria

Closer to Eternity

As another year draws to a close and we edge closer to Eternity, let us ask ourselves some important questions:

·        Am I a better person than who I was last year?
·        Am I a gentler person?
·        Am I a kinder person?
·        Am I a better son/daughter, father/mother, husband/wife?
·        Am I more faithful to what I profess?
·        Am I more attentive to the little things?
·        Am I comfortable with who I am?
·        Am I more forgiving to others who have harmed me?
·        Am I helpful to others to achieve their goals?
·        Am I more charitable to the poor, the weak and the sick?
·        Am I more willing to advocate for the exploited and oppressed?
·        Am I more open about who I am?
·        Am I more honest about who I am?
·        Am I spending more time in prayer?
·        Am I developing a deeper relationship with God?
·        Am I understanding more of the revelation in the Bible?
·        Am I experiencing more joy?
·        Am I less angry or given to fits of anger?
·        Am I at peace with myself?
·        Am I a good friend?
·        Am I a good mentor?

·        Am I becoming like I AM?

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Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Lessons from the Past: 2007

(standing on the speaker stone in the Agora, Athens)

An unknown Abbot of Greve prayed, “Lord, may I be wakeful at sunrise to begin a new day for you, cheerful at sunset for having done my work for you; thankful at moonrise and under star shine for the beauty of the universe. And may I add what little may be in me to your great world.” I tried to live out this prayer for 2007.

As in 2006, God taught me many lessons. However, I have never been a good student, often rebellious and head-strong. I am blessed to have the Holy Spirit, a loving wife and children, and wonderful friends to make sure I learnt these lessons. Here are some of the lessons I have learnt in 2007:

• I’ve learnt that not making New Year resolution is a good idea.
• I’ve learnt that it is easy to pretend to be a Mr. Know-It-All but deep down, I know that I really do not know anything at all.
• I’ve learnt that it is okay to be me.
• I’ve learnt that God is not impressed with what I have achieved.
• I’ve learnt after leading a silent retreat for a group of graduating seminary students, that they have been trained to be activists rather than contemplatives.
• I’ve learnt that the more my true self wants to be closer to God, my false self draws me further.
• I’ve learnt that knowledge and information does not automatically translate to wisdom and practice.
• I’ve learnt that it is not easy to give up the things that I think I deserve.
• I’ve learnt that it is very easy to be misunderstood if you are a preacher, church leader or Bible teacher.
• I’ve learnt that acts of kindness can be mistaken as acts of cruelty.
• I’ve learnt that all people are self-centered including me.
• I’ve learnt that while darkness is my constant companion, God is also present in that darkness.
• I’ve learnt that while I value friends, I often take them for granted.
• I’ve learnt that I need more than 24 hours in a day if I am to do all that I want to do.
• I’ve learnt that the more I study the Bible, the more I uncover the multiple levels of meaning there.
• I’ve learnt that it is difficult for me to forgive and to receive forgiveness.
• I’ve learnt that either I accept that I will never be the person I want to be or be constantly angry.
• I’ve learnt that the more I try to detach myself from worldly status symbols, the more attractive they become for me.
• I’ve learnt that people do not like to learn the truth about the prosperity gospel.
• I’ve learnt that I can understand spiritual truths better by writing about Abba Ah Beng and his smart Ah Leky disciple.
• I’ve learnt that an academic pursuit of a PhD distances me from people and life.
• I’ve learnt that the more I research a subject, the more nebulous it become and the more uncertain I become.
• I’ve learnt that the pain I feel in my heart is the also the pain that God shares.
• I’ve learnt that it is easier to become cynical and judgmental when I become older.
• I’ve learnt that I enjoy working with university students and their youthful enthusiasm energizes me.
• I’ve learnt that the more I try to lose weight, the more I gain in kilos.
• I’ve learnt that inside this aging body is a little boy with a great sense of wonder.
• I’ve learnt that I comprehend more about Paul, Corinth and the Greeks by being there in Athens, Corinth and Delphi than all the books about them.
• I’ve learnt that in a top hotel in Athens, you must check your itemized bill because someone may try to change the amount on your credit card chit.

Each year is different, every year brings something new. I echo what Ruth Harms Calkin has written:

Mysterious new year
So wrapped in reserve and surprise
You have no reason to feel smug
Or even condescending.
After all, the majestic God
Has full knowledge of you
Just as he has of me.
There is not an issue that you can evade.
Furthermore you are powerless
To do anything to me
That God does not permit.
All he allows in his infinite wisdom
Is for my ultimate good
And his greatest glory.
Consequently, new year,
You cannot trick or disillusion me
By your baffling unexplainables
Or your feverish activity.
My times are in the hands
Of my sovereign God
Whose power is limitless
And whose love for me is everlasting

Soli Deo Gloria


Monday, December 29, 2014

Lessons from the Past: 2006

At the end of a Sunday school class about Jonah and the whale, the teacher asked her class of eager 6 years old, “What have you learnt?” The answers vary from God, love, fishing until a small voice called out, “Big fish vomit out Christian!”

Ignatius of Loyola taught a spiritual discipline of reviewing our daily lives to discover the presence of God. He recommended we do it daily, weekly, monthly, six monthly and yearly. So, in the great tradition of Ignatian spirituality, I have decided to find out what I have learnt this year.
  • I’ve learnt that I never kept any of my New Year resolution because I did not make any.
  • I’ve learned that God answers prayers, but often not in ways we expect and that He has a sense of humour.
  • I’ve have learnt that no matter how many bookshelves I build, there is never enough room for my books.
  • I’ve learned that God works slowly, but His work is excellent and everlasting.
  • I’ve learnt that compassion for the poor involves giving, but sacrificial giving is very painful.
  • I’ve learnt that I am so much in a hurry that most of the time my soul is playing ‘catching up’ with my body.
  • I’ve learnt that spiritual formation takes time and I am very impatient.
  • I’ve learnt that a 10 day silent (no talking) retreat is a torture but God got through to me. He could have called me on my hand phone, He has my number.
  • I’ve learnt that no matter how many times I have read the Bible, there is always new truth/meaning waiting to be discovered.
  • I’ve learnt that most people prefer spiritual fast food than a wholesome Christian meal.
  • I’ve learnt that the Holy Spirit speaks to me but I have to lower my ambient noise to hear Him.
  • I’ve learnt that saying “no” is harder than saying yes but I need to do ‘the one thing needful’.
  • I’ve learnt that there is no point worrying about what people think of me because they never think of me anyway.
  • I’ve learnt that in the name of reformation, we have often thrown out the baby with the bathwater so there are many babies lying around. I am looking around to pick up a few.
  • I’ve learnt that teaching may not lead to learning, but learning involves teaching.
  • I’ve have learnt that after saving a child’s life, the parents will come back to complain about the bill.
  • I’ve learnt that God does heal in response to prayer but in His own way and timing.
  • I’ve learnt that the universe does not revolve around me.
  • I’ve learnt that I love to do research and write, but I am not very good at it.
  • I’ve learnt that the congregation never remember the main points of my sermons but they remember my jokes and wisecracks.
  • I’ve learnt the need to connect with our young adults because they are the next generation of leaders.
  • I’ve learnt that the Internet is a vast communication network and resource and that people actually read my blogs.
  • I’ve learnt that it is easier to loosen my belt than to lose weight.
  • I’ve learnt that we need to appreciate and love our friends, because God may call some home early.
  • I’ve learnt that after 40 years, Star Trek fans are still baldly going where no man has gone before.
  • I’ve learnt that pain is a good teacher, but I prefer to learn from a book.
  • I’ve have learnt that parents expect doctors to have no other life other than to be there when they want them.
  • I’ve learnt that I enjoy my comfort zone but travel moves me out of it.
  • I’ve learnt that believing my body is 10 years younger does not necessary make it so.
  • I’ve learned that the shoring up of my gardens is expensive, and my contractor now enjoys his new Mercedes.
  • I’ve learned that I am attached to BMWs, but a Toyota can get me around just was well.
  • I’ve learnt that most people cheat at their golf scores.
  • I’ve learned in Rome never to believe someone who claimed his restaurant to be 100% Italian because his wife made the pasta, as the food is hearty and so is the bill.
Socrates taught that an unexamined life is not worth living but see what happened to him! However God has been good to me and my family this year. I have learnt a lot and I look forward to learning more next year. The Teacher in Ecclesiastes end with “Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man. For God will bring every deed into judgment, including every hidden thing, whether it is good or evil.” (Ecc.12:13-14).
Enjoy my haiku and blessings for 2007.
breeze blow sun high stream steady meandering
calm water reflect harvest moon
butterflies fly flower fades one thing needful

Soli Deo Gloria

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Thursday, December 25, 2014

Musical Christmas Tree

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Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Advent word - O Emmanuel

O Emmanuel

O Emmanuel, our King and Lawgiver, hope of the nations and their saviour: come and save us, O Lord our God.
Amen. Come, Lord Jesus.

O Emmanuel,
Rex et legifer noster,
expectatio gentium,
et Salvator earum:
veni ad salvandum nos,
Domine, Deus noster.

Isaiah 7:14; 8:8; Matthew 1:23; Haggai 2:7

O come, o come, Emmanuel!
Redeem thy captive Israel,
that into exile drear is gone
far from the face of God's dear Son.

Rejoice! Rejoice! Emmanuel
shall come to thee, O Israel.
O come, o come, Emmanuel,
And ransom captive Israel,
That mourns in lonely exile here,
Until the Son of God appear.


"Veni, veni Emmanuel" ("Come, O come Emmanuel")

The text to this Advent song is 9th c.; the music is 15th c. French.

English Version: O Come, Emmanuel
Veni, veni, Emmanuel
captivum solve Israel,
qui gemit in exsilio,
privatus Dei Filio.

Gaude, gaude, Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te, Israel.

Veni, O Sapientia,
quae hic disponis omnia,
veni, viam prudentiae
ut doceas et gloriae.

Gaude, gaude, Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te, Israel.

Veni, veni, Adonai,
qui populo in Sinai
legem dedisti vertice
in maiestate gloriae.

Gaude, gaude Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te, Israel.

Veni, O Iesse virgula,
ex hostis tuos ungula,
de spectu tuos tartari
educ et antro barathri.

Gaude, gaude Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te, Israel.

Veni, Clavis Davidica,
regna reclude caelica,
fac iter tutum superum,
et claude vias inferum.

Gaude, gaude Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te Israel.

Veni, veni O Oriens,
solare nos adveniens,
noctis depelle nebulas,
dirasque mortis tenebras.

Gaude, gaude Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te Israel.

Veni, veni, Rex Gentium,
veni, Redemptor omnium,
ut salvas tuos famulos
peccati sibi conscios.

Gaude, gaude Emmanuel
Nascetur pro te Israel


Come, O come, Emmanuel,
and ransom captive Israel,
that morns in lonely exile here
until the Son of God appear.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!

O come, Thou Wisdom, from on high,
and order all things far and nigh;
to us the path of knowledge show,
and teach us in her ways to go.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!

O come, o come, Thou Lord of might,
who to thy tribes on Sinai's height
in ancient times did give the law,
in cloud, and majesty, and awe.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!

O come, Thou Rod of Jesse's stem,
form ev'ry foe deliver them
that trust Thy mighty power to save,
and give them vict'ry o'er the grave.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!

O come, Thou Key of David, come,
and open wide our heav'nly home,
make safe the way that leads on high,
that we no more have cause to sigh.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!

O come, Thou Dayspring from on high,
and cheer us by thy drawing nigh;
disperse the gloomy clouds of night
and death's dark shadow put to flight.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!

O come, Desire of the nations, bind
in one the hearts of all mankind;
bid every strife and quarrel cease
and fill the world with heaven's peace.

Rejoice! Rejoice!
Emmanuel shall come to thee, O Israel!



Monday, December 22, 2014

Advent word- O Rex Gentium

O Antiphons

From at least the eighth century the antiphon before and after the Magnificat at Vespers (Evening Prayer), for the seven days leading up to Christmas Eve, has greeted Christ with a title starting with "O". These became the basis of the popular carol "O come, O come, Emmanuel". The initials, when read backwards, form the Latin "Ero Cras" which means "Tomorrow I come."

They are now also used , in shorted form, in the Alleluia verses before the days' Gospel readings.

Each day an O Antiphon could be used for prayer and reflection. These could form the basis of an Advent service with readings, music, and singing. Or of art, banners, or other ways of enhancing the worship environment symbolically. The carol "O come, O come, Emmanuel" and the Magnificat could form significant features in this.

O Rex Gentium

O king of the nations, you alone can fulfil their desires: cornerstone, binding all together: come and save the creature you fashioned from the dust of the earth.
Amen. Come, Lord Jesus.

O Rex Gentium,
et desideratus earum,
lapisque angularis,
qui facis utraque unum:
veni, et salva hominem,
quem de limo formasti.

Jeremiah 30.7-11a; Revelation 15:3; Psalm 118:22; Isaiah 28:16; Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; Ephesians 2:20; I Peter 2:6

O come, desire of nations! Show
thy kingly reign on earth below;
thou cornerstone, uniting all, restore the ruin of our fall.

Rejoice! Rejoice! Emmanuel
shall come to thee, O Israel.

O come, thou Key of David, come,
And open wide our heavenly home;
Make safe the way that leads on high,
And close the path to misery.



Sunday, December 21, 2014

Advent word - O Oriens

O Oriens - O Dawn

O morning star, splendour of the light eternal and bright sun of righteousness: come and bring light to those who dwell in darkness and walk in the shadow of death.
Amen. Come, Lord Jesus.

O Oriens,
splendor lucis aeternae,
et sol justitiae:
veni, et illumina
sedentes in tenebris,
et umbra mortis.

Numbers 24.15b-17; Luke 1:78, 79; Malachi 4:2

O come, O come, thou dayspring bright!
Pour on our souls thy healing light;
dispel the long night's lingering gloom,
and pierce the shadows of the tomb.

Rejoice! Rejoice! Emmanuel
shall come to thee, O Israel.

O come, Thou Dayspring, come and cheer,
Our spirits by Thine advent here;
Disperse the gloomy clouds of night,
And death's dark shadows put to flight.